Spain and the G20

President George W. Bush recently announced that the international financial summit that ought to address reform of the international financial architecture will meet in Washington on November 15. Initially only members of the group G20 will participate. The G20 is a group of developed and emerging countries that does not include Spain. Spain has as a result not been invited to a crucial summit that may set the basis for a well-needed debate which should set the new rules of a global, redefined capitalism.

Spain’s lack of representative power in the international institutions is latent. Spain’s economy is the 10 largest in the world, yet the country is still the fifth largest of the European Union in terms of both population and gross domestic product. Whereas it is understandable that Spain is not part of the G8, composed of the seven most industrialized countries and Russia, it is arguable that Spain is not part of the G20, an ensemble of nations that includes the larger four European countries Germany, France, United Kingdom and Italy. G20 countries include 19 of the largest economies in the world plus the European Union. The countries are the following: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the European Union. The G20 was established in the G7 meeting that took place on 26-September 1999.

There are two key questions regarding Spain’s absence of the G20 that has until now been irrelevant, but now proves detrimental for Spain’s influence in the ongoing financial crisis. The first question deals with who is to be blamed or not having lobbied to be considered for admission. The second question deals with what steps should be undertaken subsequently in order to be part of the G20.

The first Aznar administration was coincidentally more keen and active on foreign policy than any of the two Zapatero administrations thus far. Aznar fought each and every battle to earn more representation in the leading institutions of the world, including the European Union and the G8. A failure on his behalf or on behalf of his former Foreign Affairs Minister Josep Pique. Either Aznar or Pique must have failed to anticipate the increasing importance the G20 has earned over the years as a forum of discussion between the developed nations and the emerging world. The G20 also represents a majority of the population of the developing world, and incorporates some of the most populated countries in the world, including China, India or Indonesia. Pique, until recently President of the Popular Party in Catalonia, and currently President of Vueling, and airline, and Mixtafrica, a real estate company, was Minister of Foreign Affairs at the time the G20 was conformed. I met with Pique last June. The Catalan is a bright economist with a strong reputation in and outside Spain. A businessman, Pique entered politics leaving behind a position as President of Catalan group Ercros, a chemical company.

Spain is the only economy of the world’s top 10 that is not represented in the G20. Spain’s financial sector has remained relatively unhedged from the turmoil in the markets, and maintains strong balance sheets and sound risk management policies enforced by the Bank of Spain, considered by the Financial Times the best financial regulator of these times of financial turmoil. Zapatero has approached Spain’s lack of presence in the summit persuading President Nicolas Sarkozy and the pair McCain/Obama, but the efforts have not yielded a positive outcome. An alternative approach would need to bring allies to the enlargement of the G20. Candidate allies may include Chile, the Netherlands or Sweden. With a stronger lobbying power and an easy way to persuade European countries and Latin American countries that are already part of the G20, Spain may be able to lead an effort which should conclude in the admission of Spain and the enlargement of the base of the G20, which ideally and on the long run should become inviting for each and every nation.

Originally published at 5spaniards on Oct 24 and reproduced here with the author’s permission.

37 Responses to "Spain and the G20"

  1. Anonymous   October 29, 2008 at 2:33 am

    Keep the racist proud Spaniards away from any significant power. A nation that believes that a 20 year aggressor of a defenseless girl from Ecuador should not be jailed must not be admitted into any international group of any significance. People in Spain have the right to called “negroes” at recognized athletes and no one in the news or in politics have the dignity of saying a word about it. I know this is financial site but how else can a racist state be castigated.

    • Geryon   October 29, 2008 at 11:39 am

      Nobody in Spain has that right to insult people concerning sex, “race”, age, gender and other personal/social sensitive issues; it’s not a question of likes or dislikes, but constitutional rights, defended by laws overwhelmingly accepted by polls and in everyday basis. So, gender inequalities, laboral discrimination, racist comments and the like are image-dammaging, for indivuals and companies alike: there are a real social aversion. About those who dare to break the rule, like those fanatics attending stadiums, and behaving like fools, i can’t find anybody who does not condemn it; at most they do not make a issue of it, but NEVER support it. Perhaps you have ever experienced such a kind of bad experience, and you have it still vivid; otherwise i can hardly explain your resent against spaniards and your liking to generalisationI’ve heard about the story of the aggressor of an eucuatorian girl: it has been a big spot on media precisely because justice seemed slow about it (we have a rather average-efficient but SLOW justice system in almost all cases, I’m afraid); I don’t know the end of the story, or what clausules encouraging rehabilitation -if any- could have been applied; but you can’t say a “NATION that believes…”. On the contrary, the media searched the guy just to ask him the most embarrasing questions, and acted like real “public prosecutors”, showing him the social adversion against that kind of acts.

      • Anonymous   November 15, 2008 at 10:29 am

        I d liek to tell u taht the agresson of the ecuatorian girl was one nazi and all spanish people were in shock when we saw what he did and everybody in Spain has been agains this guy and we agree taht people like this man must be sent to the prison. So please, dont talk such rubbish taht spanish re racist adn so on, cos it shows how many knowledge u ve of the situation. Spain has the 2nd best ranking in Europe about integration for the foreigner, much better than France or Germany. I m Spanish and i ve been really surprised and sad after read such comments, cos they re unfair and they re talking about one reality that we re not living here. Please, be informed and talk but dont talk like that cos it just hurts. Thank u

    • Floridian   October 29, 2008 at 1:55 pm

      The question is one of economic importance. If one were to follow the guidelines of the anonymous commentator, it would be necessary to remove the UK, whose history of racism, cruelty, and rape of the disadvantaged can never be ignored by Africans, Iraquis, or Indians, for example; whose foreign policy led to prolonged subjugation of the Greeks and Bulgarians to the Turkish yoke; whose treatment of those whose skin is off-white with beatings and worse. Hooligan is the definition of a UK sport fanatic. Yet this intolerable history and behavior should not exclude the UK from a seat at the table of those whose economies are important for world well-being. Castigation of racist and boorish policies cannot be undertaken at the expense of the common good.

    • Anonymous   October 29, 2008 at 9:17 pm

      If single acts of injustice are the measure of membership, there would be no countries represented. Yes, there is racism in Spain. But it also exists in all of Europe. Outside of ghettos, one rarely one sees an immigrants or ethnic minorities in the middle classes in Europe.

      • Anonymous   November 1, 2008 at 10:40 pm

        absolutly false, im living in spain, im from moroco. I studied magisterium and i actually work in a secondary school, i have a good sallary and im into the strong Midle spanish class. To be honest, spain seems to be the best country where if you study and work you can be all you want.Some racists are here, but in all countryes those racists exists.sorry about my english.

    • Francisco   October 31, 2008 at 4:59 pm

      It seems that anonymous is either a Spain-basher or a poor ignorant. In any case, comments like this one have been appearing in the English- speaking tabloids quite regularly. It is a typical angloamerican propaganda tactic: you have some isolated incidents and then you start insulting an entire nation or people. It is the way they invented the Black Legend. And if the righ to attend a meeting should be measured against the background of a country on racism I think that countries like the UK or the US should be excluded from the club of civilised nations.

    • Anonymous   March 30, 2009 at 3:11 pm

      Wow… this person has become the oppressed oppressor! Let’s catch all Spaniards and convert them into slaves. You must be the pride of your race.

      • Guest   April 2, 2009 at 11:05 am

        1 word for Anonymous–Douchebag

  2. Catalan   October 29, 2008 at 5:11 am

    Until we don’t know the real state of the banks of Spain, is not possible to say that is the 10th even 20th economy in the world. A country that is completely controlled by the Bank’s lobby, I think is difficult that will get a place in this meeting and either will survive for long time.

    • Carl   March 25, 2009 at 5:39 am

      Spain has the 8th largest economy in the world not the 10th.. Should be regarded in higher opinion than it is, but that won’t be possible giving the way the world is divided by higher world orders.. At this point all I see is Italians being proped up as the new lap dog for the US/UK angloamerican efforts to maintain world control.. What cracks me up is how much in the US they report about Mexicanss in the US sending money back home, but no one is reporting how much money Italians send back to Italy to keep it in the black and part of the G8.. Given how they operate in the corporate world only looking out for their own they dominate higher salaries that can afford higher cash investments in their country of origin.. Oh by the way regarding discrimination I would never catagorize Spaniards as racists because I have never seen it; Italians however in New York and east coast states in the US I have seen and heard in racists behavior, comments and beliefs first hand..Constantly..and factual.. If your going to call a spade a spade then get your facts straight and don’t buy into media that is owned by controlling forces looking to influence the lime light to another demographic in order to conceal their own short comings..

  3. Luis   October 31, 2008 at 4:31 pm

    Spain is in fact the 8th largest world economy according to 2007 figures by the world bank ( which uses the so called Atlas method). It is also the fith largest world investor, the first in more Latin American countries and the fourth in the US ( according to OCDE data for 2007). It has leading multinationals in telecommunications, banking, reneawable energies, utilities, infrastructure or retailing. Its language and culture are shared by more than 400 million people ( who contribute to a larger-than- Spain Hispanic World).As to the comments by Anonymous, they are part of a denigrating campaign launched by some angloamerican media ( remember all that ridiculous fuss about the alleged racism of the Spanish basketball team in Beijing last summer?) If I was an anglo I would be more than weary of accusing any other country of racism taking into account the appalling angloamerican record. It was the English, not the Spanish who exterminated the natives in North America, Canada or Australia…and their colonialism in Africa or India was simply a horror. So they better shut up.

    • Anonymous   November 4, 2008 at 3:28 am

      I am so sorry to tell you but the Indians in Spanish-America would have been better killed than treated they way they were by Spaniards. The Spanish raped the women and robed their land. Hispanic Americans inherited all the criminal traits of Spaniards, and this is the reason why Latin American cannot progress. The leaders in Latin America rob whatever they can while in power just like the Spaniards did back then. Latin America would be a better region if the English would had discovered them. Take India for example, They have in a short period of time since their freedom been able to emerge as a world power. Now after all these years the Spaniards have the audacity to treat Latin Americans in Spain like TRASH. TVE never reports the many daily incidents of racism against these people on the news, nor do I ever read it in the newspapers. STOP DEFENDING RACISM..STOP RACISM. Spain will be a great nation when starts recognizing the huge injustice been done against “sudakas.”

      • Francisco   November 9, 2008 at 1:31 pm

        To anonymous: your viciousness again Spain is only matched by your ignorance. Spain committed acts of cruelty in Latin America, no doubt, by they pale in comparison with what the anglos did in their colonies. If the English had discovered South America instead of the Spanish there would be no indigenous people left, as simple as that. Go to North America, Canada, Australia, New Zeland or any other former English Dominion and you will hardly see any Indian at all, the anglos either exterminated them or confined them to reservations. NOw, go to most Latin American countries and you will see that a majority of the population is either Indian or mixed. That is the historical reality. England just imposed its racism on its colonies. English never mixed with the locals because they hated them and considered them, nazi-like, like inferior peoples. By contrast, from the very beginning Spanish laws recognised the validity of the marriages between Spanish and locals, the latter being allowed to inherit. that never happened in the English colonies. In South America the Spanish built schools and universities ( the first one 1n 1535) where Indians were allowed to attend. When have you heard about any native being allowed to the university in an English colony?- As to comparing India to Latin America, come on do not make me laugh. The Indians have become a relative power ( there are hundred of millions of them living in abject misery) after they got rid of the English tyranny, not before. The English destroyed their industry and commerce and exploited them mercilessly. By the way, look at the former English colonies in Africa…and now compare them with most Latin American countries. Are you going to say that English colonization was better for Kenya or Somalia than Spanish colonization for Chile, one of the most advanced nations today in the emerging world?. And to Spanish now treating Latin Americans like trash…. you are being idiotically simplistic. Again, are there racist incidents against them? For sure, but bear in mind that there are more than a million Latinos in Spain and most of them have access to a level of welfare and understanding they would never get in any angloamerican country where they simply hate Latinos.

        • Anonymous   November 11, 2008 at 3:27 am

          To Francisco: Americans aren’t as short sighted as to treat Latin Americans like trash. Hispanic Americans are able to decide presidential elections in the United states. Racist incidents like the ones that occur in Spain daily would have severe consequences for the aggressors in the United States. Companies in the United States are smart enough to know that if they hire the best qualify individual for a job, regardless of the race (Latin Americans,) it is to the benefit of the corporation. The Indians in the United States have vast areas of land and are respected and protected. The laws and the mental attitude of the Americans is more progressive and realistic than what we see in Spain today. Much of what you said about the English in Asia in africa is true but I just cannot get over what I saw on t.v. A poor young Ecuadorian girl being beaten up by this wild animal inside a train car and the nation as a whole did not pronounce a word of protest. Do you Spaniards see this as normal? Do you not see the injustice? The coward that committed this atrocity is still free in Spain. This is 2008 not the 1500’s.

          • Carl   March 25, 2009 at 5:56 am

            Get off the equadorian girl.. yes it happened, but one incident does not charterize and entire nation, sounds like your from the US, well I am to and you can’t begin to be real about implying that we are fair to latin americans!! We are imperalist and racists when it comes to them.. Really makes US anglo citizens upset when they see latins in middle and upper class categorizes as intended in the way we influence media to demonize them.. but its ok for other ethnic groups from anywhere else in the world to come to the US both legally or illegally and we offer them Ivy league education and small business loans left and right; proping them up to the middle class in less than 5 years from arriving.. Scared of the level of control they can take literally over night? I think so! well get ready US by 2042 3 of 5 will be latin.. we better repent now and offer appologies for the dispicaful way we have treated them.. Why do you think most of latin america is leftest; I think their getting tired of our superior attitudes that is unfounded or real.. We have been living well above our means for decades and the bill is coming due.. Are you ready to eat crow?

      • Diego   November 9, 2008 at 1:55 pm

        Spanish Americans inherited the criminal traits of the Spaniards, anonymous says… you have to be really mentally deranged to say so. Apply the same logic to all those former English colonies which are living right now in abject poverty and by the same logic you will have to conclude that people in Kenya, Liberia, Sierra Leona, Somalia, ZImbabwe, Sri Lanka and you name it are in the state they are because they inherited all the criminal traits of the English, who, by the way, exploited them and robbed them of their lands.

      • Carl   March 25, 2009 at 5:47 am

        Get your fact straight.. Have you ever visited the indians in South America.. Well I have and they live in harmony with their Spanish descendents.. Given that their ancenstory is so ingrained as a blended population what your implying is something that can’t exist which would offend or unrecognize their geneology. Which would never happen.. Besides what happened when the spanish came to this continent first they were primative in what we recognize today as a supposed moral life.. The difference is that Indians in South America own their lands, have their cultures supported and encouraged; unlike the US where they have been banned to reservations living in mobile homes and never heard of or seen in local media..and lets not get started on how the angloamericans took the land of what is now the US.. Go have a bowl of spagetti and shut up…

  4. Luis Castejon   November 2, 2008 at 6:35 am

    Jaime congratulations for being cited in RGEmonitor I use to read. You know Spanish real international power is quite low, it must be achieved on a day-by-day basis not in a single act of picture as ZP wants. Mr. Rodriguez Zapatero (ZP) and his Governments has been the worsest Spanish President from our democratic history (the less serious and most lying “no crisis”). Examples: ii) ZP annoyed to France and Italy a few weeks ago laughing from Sarkozy and Berlusconni about ZP’s plans to overcome French and Italian GPD per capita, ii) constantly accusing to USA and Bush of being guilty of the crisis, iii) Spain was not invited by Sarkozy last October in EU high level meeting for finnacial crisis (UK, France, Italy and Germany met togheter), and iv) Ecuador has just fired out to Repsol YPF from its oil fields (more embarassing it was in the front of ZP’s face during Iberoamerican Summit). With Argentina nobody can know what could hapen to Santander, Telefonica, BBVA and Repsol if Mss Kichner continuates nacionalisation.

    • Anonymous   April 18, 2009 at 2:41 pm

      Luis, Spanish multinationals do not depend on Argentina, just study the structure of the companies you mention and you will realize that Argentina is a minor, in fact small, part of their business (even for Repsol), the meaningful one being in Mexico, Chili and Brazil, more serious and reliable. For those who question the presence of Spain in the G20, just check the World Bank data on GNP, international investment, transnational companies, etc. Some people in the Anglosaxon world do love Spain, others detest it. Should we think that they envy the success of Spanish multinationals? Spanish businessmen have shown that they can compete globally and successfully, the Brits (do you resd FT?) cannnot stand that Spanish banks have ‘stolen’ their places at the top of the world league. O2, BAA, Abbey, etc are in Spanish hands and profits go to Madrid. That’s a turning point. Spain will emerge stronger from this crisis, in 2012 its investmente in R+D will have reaches the EU average, investment on renewable energy technologies is increasing even now, and a new society is emerging with 5 million new Spaniards.

  5. GuestHarry Lees   November 2, 2008 at 3:53 pm

    I am appalled and saddened by some of the particularly cruel anti Spanish comments recorded above. As a member of the British Labour Party for over 46 years I am also very anxious to discover what my Government is doing to support the logical inclusion of Spain in all future G20 meetings.This exclusion is all the more distressingly ironic when the Spanish Government has recently paid tribute, by granting dual nationality to all those extremely brave International Brigadiers, from all over the world, who fought against the racist facists during Spain’s and the rest of Europe’s drift into the horror of the Second World War.Spain made the first challenge to facism and paid an unbelievable price for so doing.

  6. Anonymous   November 4, 2008 at 2:56 am

    The Spaniards acted during the war against the terrorists in Iraq as they did during WWII, they turned their back on England and the United States. Mr Zapatero’, desire for power, encouraged the terrorists in Iraq to exterminate the lives of many Iraqis and soldiers from around the world. Zapatero acted exactly as Franco did during WWII. The Spaniards need to consider that if they wish to be part of the international community they need to start by supporting their allies at the time when it’s more needed. Had the spaniards not chicken out of the war in Iraq, the positive outcome would have come out sooner than now.

    • Geryon   November 6, 2008 at 8:19 pm

      Before summing up and looking for analogies, missing the point of this G8 thread once more, a closer view of the sad history of Spanish Civil War would be handy. Lack of support from the nearby, stronger and better established democracies has long intrigued historians; even las Brigadas Internacionales were to provide evidence of the split between governments-politics and individuals-ideals. The fall of the multicolored Republica, the rise of Franco and the war itself were amid struggles of the major ideologies at the time; the same that ripped the country apart. Afterwards, when WWII broke out, spaniards in the exile, or francoists, or those just living here and there had their own allegiances or lack of them to think about. You would find spaniards supporting the Axis in Russia (Division Azul), but also in the liberation of Paris, dying in national and foreign concentration camps, or just fighting for survival among the ruins of the civil postwar. There were not spaniards as a whole to chicken out or hardly anything else.

    • Luis   November 9, 2008 at 1:39 pm

      You say that Spain turned its back against the US and the UK in the second world war…well, what about the historic attitude of the anglos against Spain?. Do you really think that we can consider them as our allies?. regarding the UK, well they did everything in their power to destroy Spain for the last 400 years. they invented the Black Legend ( whilst they were exterminating and exploiting people all around the world they had the nerve of accusing of spain of genocide against the Indians…take that, how many Indians are left in North America?)As to the US, consider this: Spain helped them to get rid of the English. The first thing and independent US did was to start robbing Spain and then Mexico of part of their territories. Furthermore, they fabricated the Main incident to declare an illegal war against Spain over Cuba, remember the Maine?. Qhat allies like the anglos who need enemies?

      • Carl   March 25, 2009 at 6:10 am

        And lets not forget Italians desires to destroy Spain and anyone descendent of it in the US for the last 100 years.. The facts to this comment are to great for me to list, but one can only look at how history is being rewritten in the US literally over night to accomodate their own proliferic needs.. Its actually disqusting.. Hey how did Columbus who I’ve always known to be french is now italian…

    • Aranda   November 9, 2008 at 1:44 pm

      Since when being a member of the international community requieres being pals with the US and the UK? Who the hell do you think you are? Spain was a world power before the US existed and before the UK started its shameful imperialistic race to catch up with Spain.

    • Carl   March 25, 2009 at 6:04 am

      What a load of crap!! We the US or UK should have never went to Iraq; it was a war of lies and unprescedented actions that should have never happened.. France insulted the US during this time frame and is still part of the G8.. What I believe your trying to influence (and I believe on some parties books) is further chastizing for Spains refusal to support the US/UK.. Well look at the end result; US/UK in economic burn out and Spain with Europes 16 largest banks untouched.. Wise? I think so…

  7. Guest   November 14, 2008 at 4:12 pm

    Why to keep looking at the past? We, as a hole, need to look at the future united, and I mean we,the human race.

  8. Anonymous   November 15, 2008 at 10:23 am

    I ve read here some comments against Spain, claiming that Spaniards re racirst and so on. Please, such comments just hurt spanish and european people. I m spanish and i ve never heard racist comments and if u comment any racist idea, you will be alone and u will be socially discriminated. Also I d like to say that Spain is the 2nd country of the EU with more foreigners, 10% of spanish population are foreigners, mostly from south america and marroco and the level of integration is much better than in countries like Germany or France. So please, next time you talk or comment something like taht, please be informed because when one ignortan person express his ideas, what he can produce is damage.Thank u

  9. basque   November 16, 2008 at 7:50 am

    Spain is not the 10th economy in the world but the 8th, in addition it is very influential in latinamerican countries for obvious reasons. It should have the right to a seat in the G8.

  10. Wang   March 31, 2009 at 6:46 pm

    LONG LIVE PRESIDENT BARACK OBAMA!Speaking of Barack Obama:Barack Obama is a racial-minority individual and does not like racism:(I) I do solemnly swear by Almighty God that George W. Bush committed hate crimes of epic proportions and with the stench of terrorism which I am not at liberty to mention. Many people know what Bush did. And many people will know what Bush did—even until the end of the world. Bush was absolute evil. Bush is now like a fugitive from justice. Bush is a psychological prisoner. Bush often worries. In any case, Bush will go down in history in infamy.(II) It is opined that Bill Clinton committed terrifying, racist, hate crimes during his presidency, and I am not free to say anything further about it.(III) What if basically all racial-minority people would subscribe to the interpretations that George Herbert Walker Bush committed monstrous, racist, hate crimes while he was the President of the United States? It will eventually come out: it is only a matter of time.(IV) I know it may be hard to believe. However, it is absolutely true that Ronald Wilson Reagan committed horrible, racist, hate crimes during his presidency. Numbers 32:23: “Be sure your sins will find you out.”Respectfully Submitted by Andrew Yu-Jen Wang, J.D. CandidateB.S., With the Highest Level of Academic Honors at Graduation, 1996Messiah College, Grantham, PALower Merion High School, Ardmore, PA, 1993(I can type 90 words per minute, and there are thousands of copies on the Internet (by March 29, 2009) indicating the contents of (I), (II), (III), and (IV). And there are thousands of copies in very many countries around the world.)“BAD NEWS FROM THE UNITED STATES: ON THE HATE CRIMES AND ETERNAL INFAMIES OF GEORGE W. BUSH, BILL CLINTON, GEORGE H.W. BUSH, AND RONALD REAGAN” BLOG OF ANDREW YU-JEN WANGbadnewsfromtheunitedstates.blogspot.com_______________‘If only there could be a ban against invention that bottled up memory like scent & it never faded & it never got stale.’ Off the top of my head, it came from my Lower Merion High School yearbook.

  11. ALVARO   April 8, 2009 at 6:29 am


  12. ALVARO   April 8, 2009 at 6:34 am


  13. Andy   April 10, 2009 at 2:18 am

    Spanish GDP per capita ppp is higher than that of Italy or Russia (G8 members). Spanish GDP is higher than that of Canada and Russia (G8 members). Spanish political and influence in the world is higher than that of Italy or Canada (G8 members). Spanish cultural influence in the world is higher than that of Canada or Russia (G8 members). So, why should Spain not be invited to seize a seat in the G8?Only spanish military compromise is under what should be expected taking into account the size of the country, but at last the present spanish government is trying to tackle this situation too. Spain should be granted admission inmediately. G8 is and old institution shaped under WWII circumstances but world has changes a lot since then…

    • Anonymous   July 8, 2009 at 1:01 pm

      espana mierda

    • Guest   July 11, 2009 at 11:15 am

      “Spanish political and influence in the world is higher than that of Italy or Canada (G8 members). Spanish cultural influence in the world is higher than that of Canada or Russia (G8 members).” ….. Sorry I hate to tell you this but Spain’s political and cultural influence in the Asia/Pacific is a big fat ZERO. In fact most EU countries such as Italy, Spain etc have little relevance outside the EU.

      • toslavesofignorance   July 11, 2009 at 11:30 am

        my dear Guest, if you say that putside the EU Spain is close to zero, then you know nothing about history and geopolitics. Read more, learn more and avoid ignorance.